Althusser, Louis. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses.” 1969
While the state repressive apparatus operates through force or the threat of force to enforce the ideology, there are several ideological state apparatuses that operate to reproduce the means of production by ensuring the state subjects are instructed and reinforced in the ideology. The ISAs are church, education, family, legal, political, labor-union, communications, and cultural. They operate first by interpellating citizens, hailing them and thus establishing them as subjects, subjects who answer to the calls and demands of the ideology. Education has replaced religion as, coupled with the family, the dominant ISA in modern societies.