Habermas, Jurgen. “The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article.” From Durham, Meenakshi Gigi, and Douglas Kellner. Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishers, 2001.
Public Sphere - a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed. Access is granted to all citizens. Media is of the public sphere. Contested and constructed by the state as well as private interests (i.e. public interest groups). The public sphere arose in the eighteenth century once public opinion became valued.
bourgeois public sphere - collection of private individuals who engage with the public authority (ie state) through regulated "intellectual newspapers."